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As the world's leading UREA authority we are committed to the long-term success of this industry - and that means sharing our insight and knowledge.

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CASE STUDY Converting a Urea Plant from a High into a Low Maintenance

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• Stamicarbon licensed nitric acid technologies • Between 50's-80's licensed >40 plants worlwide • 20 Stamicarbon HNO3 plants still in operation

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Stamicarbon revamps debottlecking

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Slide presentation Stamicarbon revamps & debottlenecking programmes.

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Pool condenser revamp of PIC Kuwait An ambitious revamp case

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This paper briefly touches the history of the plant, the concept of changing it into a CO2-stripping plant and the decisions taken to overcome above mentioned setbacks. The paper intends to sincerely

highlight the revamp capabilities of Stamicarbon, as much in terms of developing the optimum process scheme as in terms of troubleshooting and elegantly solving capacity limitations.

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Double stripper debottlenecking technology Case Yuntianhua Group Co. Ltd revamp in China

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This paper describes the revamp technology features, the project execution experience and of course the start up experience.

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Unlocking the potentials of innovative fertilizers

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The required global food production increase by 70 percent must be achieved mostly from land currently under cultivation. Balanced fertilizers containing micronutrients are increasingly found importan

t to boost yield, enhance the nutrients.

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Presentation Gral+AN

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• Stamicarbon licensed nitric acid technologies • Between 50's-80's licensed >40 plants worlwide • 20 Stamicarbon HNO3 plants still in operation

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Changing farmer needs for fertilizer

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In several parts of the world the focus of farmers shifts from maximizing yield for example through increasing the application rate of fertilisers, to optimizing inputs. This shift requires adaptation

of the fertiliser product and/or the fertiliser application technology.

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An historic perspective on Stamicarbon

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Problem statement Solution directions Requirements for an OTS Stamicarbon's 40 year history and experience with OTS Cooperation OTS offerings.

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Stamicarbon Nitric Acid

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• Stamicarbon licensed nitric acid technologies • Between 50's-80's licensed >40 plants worlwide • 20 Stamicarbon HNO3 plants still in operation

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The fertilizer industry and the port of Rotterdam

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In his presentation prof. dr. Harry Geerlings will describe the historic development of the Port of Rotterdam over the last 200 years.

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Stamicarbon UAN Technology and Protect UAN

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Slide presentation on Stamicarbon's UAN technology. Years of experience with AN/UANplants: More than 150 years of operation in AN and UAN plants. 15 years at our own DSM plant in Geleen, the

Netherlands, since 2010 operating as OCI Nitrogen.

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FROM UREA TO UAS TO MULTI PRODUCT GRANULATION

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• Background on nutrients (macro and micro) • Selection of sulfur source • From urea to UAS • Differences to urea granulation • Features of UAS granulation • Process development • From UAS to mul

ti-product granulation • Modular build-up of granulatio...

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Technologies and servies for AdBlue product diversification

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Urea is known as the “white gold” in the fertilizer industry as it is the most utilized in the world. In recent years, AdBlue®—also known as DEF or ARLA 32—introduced a new application for urea: it is

used to reduce NOx emissions from diesel vehicles.

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DEF: Diesel Exhaust Fluid

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Slide presentation on Diesel Exhaust Fluid. Contribution of Stamicarbon? Concept relative simple Impact evaluation (quality, turn down, biuret) Opportunity investigation Flexibility an

alysis (capacity, operations) Tailor made design

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Product development Dry Finishing

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• Why a new finishing technology? • Principle of dry finishing technology • The process • Alternative applications • Current Status

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Hydraulics improvement of synthesis loop for sustainable Urea production at high load

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Karnaphuli Fertilizer Company Limited (KAFCO) operates a 1500 mtpd ammonia plant (Haldor Topsoe design) and a 1725 mtpd urea plant (Stamicarbon design) on the bank of the river Karnaphuli in Chittagon

g Bangladesh. It is the first Stamicarbon urea CO2 stripping plant featuring the pool condenser technology, see [1]. In the Kafco-Bangladesh plant, the interconnection between the pool condenser and the reactor is provided by two high pressure (HP) pipelines, a 10” inch liquid and a 10” inch gas line. The plant is commissioned in 1994. After commissioning, operating experience learned that the gas line from the pool condenser to the reactor was sometimes filled with a stagnant liquid level; especially in case of a start-up from a “blocked-in condition“. This resulted in problems with the synthesis hydraulics and limited the maximum plant load to 115%. This problem was mostly overcome after draining of the synthesis loop but causing some environmental problems as well. For a permanent solution to this problem a modification of the HP gas line was implemented during the planned turnaround in 2010.The modification improved the hydraulics of the urea synthesis loop; eliminated gas flow restriction after a “block-in situation” and resulted in an increase of production up to 121% of the design capacity. The 1725 MTPD plant is now able to produce 2100 MTPD.

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Biuret is back on the agenda after 40 years

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Due to the fast increasing market of Diesel Exhaust Fuel (DEF, AdBlue®, ARLA 32), biuret is becoming a hot topic again.  DEF is a 32.5 wt% aqueous urea solution used as de-NOx agent to remove NOx

out of the exhaust of diesel cars. Diesel trucks but also already private cars are obliged to use DEF in Europe and the US, more continents will follow. The price of DEF at the moment almost doubles the price of urea fertilizer. All urea producers are looking for opportunities to become part of the DEF family. The DEF specification is described by ISO 22241 and DIN V70070 and limits amongst others the amounts of Biuret (< 0.3 wt%), NH3 (< 0.2 wt%) and Formaldehyde (< 5 ppm). DEF is produced by urea producers as a 32.5 wt% - or a 50 wt% aqueous urea solution or as solid product depending on the distance between the producers and the consumers. Urea granules are abandoned as DEF due to its formaldehyde content. Urea prills are sold in China as premium if the biuret content is maintained lower than 0.9 wt% because in that case they can be used for DEF.  Plants with a granulation finishing section which produce DEF from urea solution have difficulties to keep the biuret concentration low enough in their granules due to the increased residence time in the evaporation stage. These challenges are leading to the increased worldwide interest in biuret.

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Re-linen of Urea Reactors in-Situ

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Operating an urea equipment over many years will lead to thinning of the alloy protection. This thinning takes place gradually and is not for all equipment identical. Even a difference of corrosion is

taking place within a single piece of equipment. In a Urea reactor for instance the corrosion in the top is more than in the bottom part. This reduction in liner wall thickness should not mean automatically the end of the lifetime of a reactor. An in situ relining may extend the lifetime of the reactor again for many years. To allow an optimum repair with respect to quality, timing and down time of the Urea reactor it is important to make a good game plan and preparations should already be done prior to the turn around. In the HP Heat Exchangers the liner is not the critical factor. The heat exchanger tubes are the limiting factor with respect to the lifetime of the equipment and a replacement appears to be the most economical solution.

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SAFETY ASPECTS WITH THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF UREA PLANTS

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Urea production takes place at high pressures (> 140 bar), it applies large volumes, it utilizes a feedstock containing a toxic component (NH3) and explosive components (e.g. H2) and the reaction p

roducts are highly corrosive. Risks discussed in this presentation: •Explosion •Loss of mechanical integrity

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Safety and Product Stewardship in the Fertilizer Industry

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I believe the fertilizer industry has a prosperous future. By 2050 it is estimated that 70% more food will have to be produced compared to today. This will demand a continuous growth in fertilizer pro

duction. At the same time, we must expect that society will focus even more on safety and environmental issues associated with fertilizers, such as Health and safety risks from working in fertilizer plants Major accident risks, to avoid disasters like the explosion in Toulouse Terrorist acts, using fertilizers for bomb-making Pollution risks from the manufacturing processes and from the use of fertilizers Climate change and the role of fertilizers and agriculture Use of limited energy and mineral resources, such as phosphates The public perception of Good Citizenship has changed over the years. Today, many people look upon the chemical industry as a burden to future sustainability. This perception will deepen if the industry has a poor safety and environmental performance. It is vital to perform well and to eliminate bad practices. Otherwise we must expect that much stricter regulations will be enforced upon the industry. In this paper I will focus on the 3 first bullet points above, those that are related to safety and product stewardship, with some practical advice on actions the industry should take in order to be in command and avoiding over-regulation. 

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Urea Synthesis gas lines suffering from leakages

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In the 2014 turnaround all original AISI316L-UG high-pressure gas lines were replaced in the urea synthesis section, in accordance with advice from Stamicarbon. The material utilized for the replaced

gas lines was again AISI316L-UG, because there were still some such tubes in stock, dating from the time the plant was constructed.The affected areas showed evidence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), but reduction in the wall thickness was also observed. This was attributable to condensation corrosion, which is normally observed in the gas lines. It was most severe in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) near the welds. The affected elbows were subjected to metallographic examination in Brazil as well as in Stamicarbon laboratory. This paper presents the investigations carried out on the elbows and piping removed from the urea synthesis gas lines in order to find the root cause of the leakages. 

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Sustainable plant operation without stripper level indication

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Stripper level indication is critical in CO2 Stripping plant as loss of level can cause CO2 Slippage towards the LP Section whilst too high level causes unequal distribution of CO2 resulting in poor s

tripper performance.  The stripper level indication (Radioactive type) LT-1043 got erratic at our plant and we sustained plant operation without this indication by: 1. Keep the plant load constant and avoid any changes in plant load.  2. Observe the stripper outlet temperature as this temperature will change with increase or decrease of the stripper bottom level.  3. Observe the steam consumption of the stripper as the steam flow will change with a change in the liquid level. 4. Observe the N/C Ratio and keep it constant. 5. Observe the downstream section pressure at constant plant load.

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Urea plant Safety - A review

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Process safety of course is a very important topic for all of us. Nowadays we see that worldwide every company working in our industry sets challenging policies and targets to improve on safety perfor

mance. And rightfully; we must see safety as a prime concern in order to protect ourselves and our neighbors from unwanted effects from our activities. Moreover, on the long run production without accidents will be a key factor in order to obtain and maintain acceptance of our activities by the rest of the society. In order to maintain this so called ‘license to operate’ it is of importance that our production processes are safe, but also we should be able to proof that our safety procedures and standards are up to ‘world class’ level. In this respect it is important to recognize that safety standards are continuously evolving. Things that were fully acceptable 100 years ago nowadays are completely unthinkable.

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Safety and Product Stewardship in the Fertilizer Industry

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I believe the fertilizer industry has a prosperous future. By 2050 it is estimated that 70% more food will have to be produced compared to today. This will demand a continuous growth in fertilizer pro

duction. At the same time, we must expect that society will focus even more on safety and environmental issues associated with fertilizers, such as Health and safety risks from working in fertilizer plants Major accident risks, to avoid disasters like the explosion in Toulouse Terrorist acts, using fertilizers for bomb-making Pollution risks from the manufacturing processes and from the use of fertilizers Climate change and the role of fertilizers and agriculture Use of limited energy and mineral resources, such as phosphates The public perception of Good Citizenship has changed over the years. Today, many people look upon the chemical industry as a burden to future sustainability. This perception will deepen if the industry has a poor safety and environmental performance. It is vital to perform well and to eliminate bad practices. Otherwise we must expect that much stricter regulations will be enforced upon the industry. In this paper I will focus on the 3 first bullet points above, those that are related to safety and product stewardship, with some practical advice on actions the industry should take in order to be in command and avoiding over regulation. 

Read more