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As the world's leading UREA authority we are committed to the long-term success of this industry - and that means sharing our insight and knowledge.

increase capacity

EVOLVE CAPACITY™

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Significantly increasing your plant output, from 10% up to 100%.

energy

EVOLVE ENERGY™

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Significantly lower steam utilization and optimal use of feedstock consumption.

decrease emissions

EVOLVE EMISSION™

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Reducing emissions according to international standards.

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Granulation The Stacx Project

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The Agrium Fort Saskatchewan Urea plant has been operating with a Stamicarbon CO2 stripping synthesis section and an NSM (now HFT) fluidized bed granulation section since the original start-up in 1983

. The Urea Synthesis section had a nameplate capacity of 908 tonnes per day, while the urea granulation section consists of two trains (North and South), each with a nameplate capacity of 544 tonnes per day. These two trains are independent of each other. Over the last 20 years, the Fort urea plant has been operated at rates up to 1250 tonnes per day while producing good quality granular product. Well over 6 million tonnes of urea have been produced. It was decided to convert the Fort Saskatchewan granulation trains to Stamicarbon technology. The conversion project was completed in three months1 and the granulation plant was restarted on September 30, 2003. This paper presents a summary of the project, the changes completed, the operating results, potential savings in operating costs, and the product characteristics associated with the conversion.

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INCREASING YOUR CO2 FEED STOCK

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The urea plant needs both ammonia and CO2 as feedstock for producing Urea. • Both ammonia and CO2 are supplied by the ammonia plant. • Mass ratio CO2 /ammonia of ammonia plants •Ammonia plants base

d upon natural gas produce a ratio of 1.3 to 1.5 carbon dioxide to ammonia of which about 18% is in the form of flue-gas. •Ammonia plants based upon coal gasification produce a ratio of 2.7 to 2.8 ton per ton of ammonia

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Greenhouse gas emission reduction and the technologies availabile for it

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Urea is without doubt the most important nitrogen mineral fertilizer currently in use worldwide. Even though the contribution of N mineral fertilizer production to the global anthropogenic greenhouse

gas (GHG) emissions is estimated to be less than 1%, great efforts have been made to understand what the main sources are and in what proportion, so that appropriate mitigation measures can be taken. As for any other chemical, GHG emissions attributable to urea are associated with its life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to its application and disposal. Since ammonia and carbon dioxide are the raw materials for producing urea, the impact of an ammonia plant is an important consideration when assessing the carbon footprint of urea. This paper focuses on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions related to ammonia and urea production, and discusses available measures to reduce direct and indirect emissions. Some urea applications such as urea deep placement (UDP) and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) are also briefly discussed, to illustrate the potential of urea applications to reduce GHG emissions.

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From flaring to environmental friendly ammonia firing and that even done in an economical way

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This paper focuses specifically on the environmental consideration to use an off-gas treatment system for the elimination of ammonia emissions in the urea melt plant. It explains how ammonia venting t

o the atmosphere can environmentally wise be benchmarked against the alternatives of incineration, heating and combustion technologies. The paper explains Stamicarbon’s objections regarding the use of flare systems as environmental mitigation strategy in the urea melt plant and clarifies the most environmental and economical sensible solution available in Stamicarbon’s technology portfolio: the thermal treatment and catalytic DeNOX. An example case of a world scale urea plant is used for quantification and the outcome of the paper reveals Stamicarbon’s bridge that connects today to tomorrow.

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Emission legislation relating to urea production

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The objective of emission abatement is to ensure that the concentration of the pertinent pollutant in the ambient air does not exceed levels specified in national ambient air quality standards or, in

their absence, the current WHO Air Quality Guidelines or comparable guidelines set by other internationally recognized bodies. So there are no globally-applicable emission limits; they differ region by region according to standards set by the local authorities. For the licensor this means that every new project, whether grassroots or revamp, needs a tailor-made approach in close co-operation with the engineering contractor, owner of the facility and local authorities. 

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EMISSION ABATEMENT SOLUTIONS WITH UREA PRODUCTION

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• Introduction • Emission legislation • Emission sources with urea production • GHG emission reduction with urea production • Ammonia emission reduction in the urea melt section • Dust and ammoni

a emission reduction in the urea finishing section • Key take-aways  

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CO2 production add on for urea revamping

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In the ammonia-urea complex normally excess ammonia is produced. Such excess is sold or used for other purposes. As ammonia plants are facing safety issues, stricter regulations and increasing costs f

or transporting their product, plant owners are low.

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Ammonia emission reduction scrubbing technologies

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The paper ends with our conclusion that installing a wet scrubbing system can effectively solve emission problems for both continuous and semi-continuous sources such as tank breathing, and it can eas

ily meet the emission levels prescribed by law. Because it recovers waste water for re-use and produces ammonium salts that can be processed and sold, this technology is environmentally friendly in comparison with other cleaning methods that can produce additional emissions (for example, NOx and CO2 in the case of flaring). It has a CAPEX advantage because it requires less infrastructure investment than do other technologies. It requires neither the catalyst needed in SCR (selective catalytic reduction) nor the high operating temperatures and costly construction materials associated with incineration. Last but not least, wet scrubbing is simple to operate and it does not entail the extra safety precautions needed with, for example, flaring.

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Acidic scrubbing as solution for NH3 emission from granulations and prilling towers

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In this round table session the preferred embodiment of an acidic scrubbing system for reducing NH3 emissions from a granulation plant or a prilling tower is discussed. This paper provides a guide l

ine for this discussion by focusing on three key questions: Which acid should preferably be used? Which outlet for the resulting ammonium salt is preferred? Should the dust and NH3 scrubbing be combined in one scrubber?  

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The Stamicarbon low energy urea melt plant

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In this paper the Stamicarbon concept for a low energy urea melt plant is presented. By direct heat integration between the HP pool condenser and the MP rectifying heater and between the MP condenser

and the 1st stage evaporator heater, the steam consumption can be lowered considerably. For instance, for a urea melt plant with prilling as finishing technique, the turbine extraction steam consumption can be lowered from 868 kgsteam/tonproduct to 558 kgsteam/tonproduct. The design challenges for the critical equipment in this low energy concept with respect to corrosion and sizing have been addressed and solved.

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Round table discussion inert recycle

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• Stamicarbon licensed nitric acid technologies • Between 50's-80's licensed >40 plants worlwide • 20 Stamicarbon HNO3 plants still in operation

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Stamicarbon Evolve optimization solutions

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In addition to MPC, non-linear modelbased optimization techniques have been applied widely to generate additional substantial benefits. The new STAMICARBON YIELD OPTIMIZATION SOLUTIONS solution offere

d by Stamicarbon and IPCOS combines the benefits from MPC and Nonlinear optimization of Urea plants into one solution.

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SHARING REVAMPING EXPERIENCES UREA PLANTS

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Revamping concepts for urea plants

Registered users

Revamp steps • Type of Urea plants including typical figures • Evolve projects: Reference projects (MP addon) • Evolve projects: Stripping plants • Evolve projects: Conventional plants • Evolve p

rojects: Reference projects (Conventional) 

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CASE STUDY Converting a Urea Plant from a High into a Low Maintenance

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• Stamicarbon licensed nitric acid technologies • Between 50's-80's licensed >40 plants worlwide • 20 Stamicarbon HNO3 plants still in operation

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Stamicarbon revamps debottlecking

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Slide presentation Stamicarbon revamps & debottlenecking programmes.

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Pool condenser revamp of PIC Kuwait An ambitious revamp case

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This paper briefly touches the history of the plant, the concept of changing it into a CO2-stripping plant and the decisions taken to overcome above mentioned setbacks. The paper intends to sincerely

highlight the revamp capabilities of Stamicarbon, as much in terms of developing the optimum process scheme as in terms of troubleshooting and elegantly solving capacity limitations.

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Double stripper debottlenecking technology Case Yuntianhua Group Co. Ltd revamp in China

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This paper describes the revamp technology features, the project execution experience and of course the start up experience.

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Urea storage and handling, let's keep caking in the kitchen

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Reviewing the history of urea technology and Urea technology development, we may conclude that from the beginning of commercial Urea Technology development and Urea Production until now much attention

has been given to developing and optimizing the synthesis- and recycling-section in the urea plant, that in the last decade increased attention has been given to developments and optimizations regarding Urea shaping technology (granulation and prilling), whereas over the entire Urea history, also much attention has been given to storage and handling, indicating the importance of product quality, storage and handling. The most important problems occurring in Storage and Handling are directly or indirectly related to (results of) caking, like lump-formation and dusting. Therefore the mechanism of caking of Urea has been made the subject of a paper because we realize that large efforts and considerable amounts of money can be involved with the consequences of caking. In this paper the mechanism of caking via water sorption and desorption is discussed. Especially the caking, spreading through a heap of Urea, observed even in Urea of good quality will be highlighted. This is often caused by moisture migration. The mechanisms of caking are then explained by discussing some examples from practice.

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Ammonia emission reduction combustion technologies

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When ammonia emissions have to be reduced to very low concentrations and amounts, but ammonia salts are not desirable, thermal oxidation of the ammonia is a feasible alternative. This paper focuses on

possible ways to eliminate ammonia emissions from continuous emission sources in the urea melt synthesis and purification sections, as well as from discontinuous ammonia emissions during upset conditions. Stamicarbon flare designs and recent innovations with regards to the thermal treatment of ammonia are discussed. Guidelines for a safe design of flares and for a so called “ADVANCE DESIGNTM Thermal Treatment” system are given. The paper highlights and explains the catalytic and non-catalytic combustion technologies offered and elaborates on the pros and cons of these technologies. It is shown that for eliminating continuous ammonia emissions during normal operation, the ADVANCE DESIGNTM Thermal Treatment system offered by Stamicarbon has significant advantages in comparison with flaring. Not only is the environmental impact significantly less; also both investment and operating costs are much lower.

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EVOLVE EMISSIONS MIcroMist Venturi Scrubber

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Worldwide, fine particulate emission regulations are becoming increasingly strict. In response to this, Stamicarbon and Envirocare have co-developed high-efficiency scrubbing technology for integratio

n with Stamicarbon’s fluidized-bed urea granulation technology. By SpiralMist quenching and accelerating the granulation exhaust gas through MicroMist™ Venturi (MMV) tubes, particulate emissions as low as 10 mg/Nm3 can be achieved. An additional polishing Star Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (Star WESP) can further reduce particulate emissions to as low as 5 mg/Nm3. This paper discloses the fascinating story of the conceptual development, pilot testing, detailed design and fabrication of the Stamicarbon-Envirocare MMV scrubbers for two new grass-root urea granulation plants in the USA.

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